Billing Basics

Billing Basics

e-Mobility Eco-system

The EV market has many important actors:
EV market actors

The GreenFlux platform builds features for 2 of these actors: the CPO and the eMSP.
CPO: Charge Point Operator. Operates, maintains and sometimes owns the infrastructure and/or land.

eMSP: e-Mobility Service Provider. Provides services to drivers, like access to charge stations and monthly invoicing, as well as management services for fleets.

e-Mobility Transactions

Broadly speaking, there are 2 ways a driver can pay for a session:
  1. Directly to the CPO (generally using a credit card), also known as Ad Hoc payment
  2. Via an eMSP
When paying Ad Hoc, a Payment Service Provider, or PSP, facilitates the transfer of funds between driver and CPO, adding some fee ontop of the CPO’s base price.

Ad Hoc transaction

When paying via eMSP, there are actually 2 transactions occurring:

  1. A retail (B2C) transaction between Driver and eMSP. This is usually done either with a “cost plus” model (e.g. CPO fee + 5%), or a flat fee model (40 cents/ kWh).
  2. A wholesale (B2B) transaction between eMSP and CPO. When the CPO and eMSP are different parties, this is a roaming transaction.

The CPO and eMSP can be the same party; in this case, it is a non-roaming transaction, though in the GreenFlux platform it is still split as Retail and Wholesale for consistency.
Roaming transaction

There is a 3rd type of transaction, specific to CPOs: Reimbursement. When the CPO does not own the energy contract for a charger, they need to be able to calculate how much must be reimbursed to the contract owner. There are 2 primary use cases:
  1. The CPO operates a charger at a business location. The CPO charges drivers/eMSPs X cents/ kWh. The CPO must reimburse the landlord Y cents per kWh for the electricity.
  2. The CPO installs home chargers for fleet drivers. The fleet manager must reimburse their employee Y cents/kWh for the electricity consumed and add it onto their paycheck.
Fleet reimbursement transaction
Energy contract holder reimbursement transaction